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Dancing Girls, Black and White Portrait Photograph of Children in Sevilla, Spain
By Ernst Haas
Located in New york, NY
Shot in Seville, Spain, Haas captures a young girl mimicking the movements of flamenco dancers on the dance floor. Dancing Girls, 1956 by Ernst Haas, is an 11” x 14” gelatin silver p...
Category

1950s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Photographic Film, Photographic Paper, Silver Gelatin

After the Smoke: Modern Black & White Photograph of an Old-Fashioned Interior
By Robert Hite
Located in Hudson, NY
Black and white still life photograph of an old-fashioned interior filled with smoke and vines archival pigment print, edition of 10 40 x 30 inches, 49 x 39 inches in dark grey pain...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Palms Springs One, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is diving. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image transcends sculptured form t...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

The bird on my mind, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is sitting with a white pigeon on her head. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable i...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Afua's Backside II, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
Edition 10 A nude female model shows her hands on her backside. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable i...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Tree of Live, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model holds a big leaf in front of her face. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image ...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Crossed Arms, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is crouching and has her arms crossed in front of her. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each i...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Leila in the cloud, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model with blond hair is sitting in the dust. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Velmar, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is wrapped in a black net. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image transcends ...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

The combination, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is posing on a black background. It looks like a sculpture. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. E...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Perfect Order, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is posing on a black background. It looks like a sculpture. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. E...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Female Buddha, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is sitting on the floor. Her backside is photographed. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each ...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

L-shape, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
Edition 10 A nude female model is lying on her back. The head is down. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impec...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

The Dive, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is diving. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image transcends sculptured form t...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Self-Conscious, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model with very white skin and no hair is posing like a sculpture. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. ...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

The Angle, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model with very white skin and no hair is posing like a sculpture. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. ...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Side View, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model with very white skin and no hair is posing like a sculpture. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. ...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Hair-Dress, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model with very long dark hair from the backside. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable i...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Leila, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model with a pigtail from the backside. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image trans...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Display-Dummy, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model with very white skin and no hair is posing like a sculpture. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. ...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Leg position, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is posing before a white background. It looks like a sculpture. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female for...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Snake woman, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is wrapped by a big Python snake. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image trans...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

The pigeon, 21st century, contemporary, photography
By Sylvie Blum
Located in Munich, DE
A nude female model is holding a pigeon in her hands. As a woman and an artist, Austrian-born Sylvie Blum offers a unique perspective on the female form. Each impeccable image trans...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

Prelude No. 3 (Black and White Plaster and Found Object Sculpture)
By Paul Katz
Located in Hudson, NY
Plaster, sand, & paint on found object 8 x 2.5 x 2.5 This black and white sculpture was created by Hudson Valley-based artist Paul Katz, whose process involves coating found objects...
Category

2010s Contemporary Still-life Sculptures

Materials

Plaster, Paint, Found Objects

Prelude No. 264 (Black and White Plaster and Found Object Sculpture)
By Paul Katz
Located in Hudson, NY
Plaster, sand, & paint on found objects Rhino: 5 x 9 x 3.5 inches Base: 4.5 x 6.5 x 5 inches This black and white sculpture and base was created by Hudson Valley-based artist Paul K...
Category

2010s Contemporary Still-life Sculptures

Materials

Plaster, Paint, Found Objects

Prelude No. 270 (Black and White Plaster and Found Object Sculpture)
By Paul Katz
Located in Hudson, NY
Plaster, sand, & paint on found object 28 x 6 x 6 inches This black and white sculpture was created by Hudson Valley-based artist Paul Katz, whose process involves coating found obj...
Category

2010s Contemporary Still-life Sculptures

Materials

Plaster, Paint, Found Objects

Prelude No. 89 (Black and White Plaster and Found Object Relief Sculpture)
By Paul Katz
Located in Hudson, NY
Plaster, sand, & paint on found objects 11 x 10 x 3 inches Base is pictured separately from sculpture but is included This black and white hanging relief sculpture was created by Hu...
Category

2010s Contemporary Figurative Sculptures

Materials

Plaster, Paint, Found Objects

Prelude No. 75 (Black and White Plaster and Found Object Relief Sculpture)
By Paul Katz
Located in Hudson, NY
Plaster, sand, & paint on found objects 16 x 14 x 5 inches This black and white hanging relief sculpture was created by Hudson Valley-based artist Paul Katz, whose process involves ...
Category

2010s Contemporary Abstract Sculptures

Materials

Plaster, Paint, Found Objects

Cream Harvest - Original Black and White Artwork (Framed and Ready to Hang)
By Bruce Rubenstein
Located in Los Angeles, CA
The large scale paintings of Bruce Rubenstein merge the creative attitudes of the two distinct art hot spots of New York and Los Angeles. Rubenstein's work has a rigid edge and stro...
Category

21st Century and Contemporary Abstract Expressionist Mixed Media

Materials

Enamel

Italian Contemporary Photo - White Circle, Borromini and the Discovery of Light
By Francesca Pompei
Located in Paris, IDF
The Dome of San Carlo alle 4 Fontane by Francesco Borromini, Rome, 2009 Photograph, Fine Art Print Edition 1/5 Available dimensions: 40 x 60 cm - 50 x 75 cm - 70 x 105 cm Francesca...
Category

2010s Contemporary Color Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment, Paper

art celebrity portrait photography of Debby Harry by Nigel Parry
By Nigel Parry
Located in Leiden, Zuid-Holland
Debby Harry by Nigel Parry Nigel Parry began his photographic career in London in 1988 and moved to New York City in 1994. Since then, he has been commissioned by the most distinguis...
Category

2010s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Pigment

nude art celebrity portrait photography of Asia Agento by Nigel Parry
By Nigel Parry
Located in Leiden, Zuid-Holland
Asia Agento by Nigel Parry Nigel Parry began his photographic career in London in 1988 and moved to New York City in 1994. Since then, he has been commissioned by the most distinguis...
Category

2010s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Pigment

art celebrity portrait photography of Leonardo DiCaprio by Nigel Parry
By Nigel Parry
Located in Leiden, Zuid-Holland
Leonardo DiCaprio by Nigel Parry Nigel Parry began his photographic career in London in 1988 and moved to New York City in 1994. Since then, he has been commissioned by the most dist...
Category

2010s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Pigment

nude art celebrity portrait photography of Amanda Marcum by Nigel Parry
By Nigel Parry
Located in Leiden, Zuid-Holland
Amanda Marcum by Nigel Parry Nigel Parry began his photographic career in London in 1988 and moved to New York City in 1994. Since then, he has been commissioned by the most distingu...
Category

2010s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Pigment

"Untitled 4" by Diego Anaya - minimal black and white set of mirror paintings
By Diego Anaya
Located in Brooklyn, NY
Minimalistic black and white paintings set with custom steel frame. 4pc, 12" x 12" each. Can be sold separately for $1200/pc. "Through this body of work I found the opportunity to o...
Category

21st Century and Contemporary Contemporary Abstract Paintings

Materials

Sandstone, Steel

"Fragmentos de mi Cordillera" by Diego Anaya - black and white abstract painting
By Diego Anaya
Located in Brooklyn, NY
Textured minimalistic abstract black and white painting. "Through this body of work I found the opportunity to open a dialogue about identity, rediscovering it through the stories em...
Category

21st Century and Contemporary Contemporary Abstract Paintings

Materials

Concrete, Steel

The Rat Pack on Stage Performing in Las Vegas, 1961, Black and White Photo
By Art Shay
Located in Chicago, IL
The Rat Pack, performing at the Sands Hotel in Las Vegas in the 1960s was captured by Art Shay in this iconic photograph. It is signed on the front in the lower right hand corner as...
Category

1960s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Three to Four Ages of Women - Black and White Street Photography by Art Shay
By Art Shay
Located in Chicago, IL
Art Shay's true love was street photography. It is evidently clear in this shot entitled "The Three, Maybe Four, Ages of Women" with the young mannequin bride, the middle aged women...
Category

1960s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Pigment

The Lonely Hearts DJ (The Girl behind the White Picket Fence) - Polaroid
By Stefanie Schneider
Located in Morongo Valley, CA
The Lonely Hearts DJ (The Girl behind the White Picket Fence) 2016, 20x24cm, Edition 1/10, digital C-Print, based on a Polaroid. Certificate and Signature label. Artist Inventory # 1...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Paper, Photographic Paper, C Print, Color, Polaroid

Joel and Lower Baldonell House, Dublin, 1910
By McDermott & McGough
Located in New York, NY
Platinum palladium print (Edition of 25) Signed, titled, dated, and numbered in pencil, verso This artwork is offered by ClampArt, located in New York City. David McDermott was bor...
Category

Early 2000s Other Art Style Black and White Photography

Materials

Platinum

Raquel Welch and Ringo Starr
By Terry O'Neill
Located in New York, NY
Raquel Welch and Ringo Starr, 1969 silver gelatin print 20 x 16 inches edition of 50 signed and numbered American actress Raquel Welch wearing a leather suit with Beatles' Ringo Sta...
Category

1960s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Brigitte Bardot Spain (co-signed)
By Terry O'Neill
Located in New York, NY
Brigitte Bardot, Spain 1971 (printed later) silver gelatin print 34 x 24 inches co-signed and edition number 50/50 French actress Brigitte Bardot on the set of 'Les Petroleuses' a....
Category

1970s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Dancer/Choreographer José Limón performing 'Macbeth', signed exhibition print
By Jack Mitchell
Located in Senoia, GA
Dancer/Choreographer José Limón performing his 'Macbeth', photographed in 1960. This is a vintage gelatin silver print, selenium toned, made by hand by master photographer Jack Mitch...
Category

1960s Pop Art Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Tyler Shields, 'Pull', 2012
By Tyler Shields
Located in Park City, UT
Tyler Shields, 'Pull', 2012 Medium: C-type Photographic Print Size: 30 x 30 " Signature: Signed Certificate of Authenticity Edition of 3 Unframed To the trade pricing (Additional siz...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

C Print

Herbert Linge Porsche RSK, Targa Florio, Sicily, Italy
By Jesse Alexander
Located in Dallas, TX
Signed by artist in black ink. Jesse Alexander is considered one of the greatest race car photographers in history. His images of vintage automobiles and the people who gave them li...
Category

1950s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Luigi Musso - Maserati (full car), Pau
By Jesse Alexander
Located in Dallas, TX
Open Edition Signed by artist in black ink on print margin by Jesse Alexander Gelatin silver print, 11 x 14 in. Jesse Alexander is considered one of the greatest race car photogra...
Category

1950s Modern Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

The Gentleman Caller (Nick Simpson Sepia Victorian Styled Theatrical Photograph)
By Nick Simpson
Located in Hudson, NY
The Gentleman Caller (Nick Simpson Sepia Victorian Styled Theatrical Photograph) 12 x 16 inches, 21 x 26 inches framed in unique, vintage frame, anti-reflective glass, 8 ply off-whit...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Paper, C Print

Fiona Lewis in Los Angeles
By Helmut Newton
Located in Paris, FR
Very nice photo-lithography of Helmut Newton Annotations on the back Dimensions: 41 x 28 cm Signed by the artist in pencil Perfect condition - neat shipment
Category

1970s Black and White Photography

Materials

Photographic Paper

Male Nude from Numbered Nudes Series, multiple exposure signed exhibition print
By Jack Mitchell
Located in Senoia, GA
5051 6 6 1991 1/20. This is a vintage gelatin silver print, selenium toned, made by hand by master photographer Jack Mitchell and signed both on the recto and verso. Chosen by the p...
Category

1990s Pop Art Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Male Nude from Numbered Nudes Series, multiple exposure signed exhibition print
By Jack Mitchell
Located in Senoia, GA
4625 2 10 1986 1/20. This is a vintage gelatin silver print, selenium toned, made by hand by master photographer Jack Mitchell and signed both on the recto and verso. Chosen by the p...
Category

1980s Pop Art Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Female Nude from Numbered Nudes Series multiple exposure signed exhibition print
By Jack Mitchell
Located in Senoia, GA
5040 1 2 1991 2/20. This is a vintage gelatin silver print, selenium toned, made by hand by master photographer Jack Mitchell and signed both on the recto and verso. Chosen by the p...
Category

1990s Pop Art Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Male Nude from Numbered Nudes Series, multiple exposure signed exhibition print
By Jack Mitchell
Located in Senoia, GA
4615 2 28 1986 1/20. This is a vintage gelatin silver print, selenium toned, made by hand by master photographer Jack Mitchell and signed both on the recto and verso. Chosen by the ...
Category

1980s Pop Art Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Royal Winnipeg Ballet performing 'Le Sac du Printemps', signed exhibition print
By Jack Mitchell
Located in Senoia, GA
Royal Winnipeg Ballet performing 'Le Sac du Printemps', photographed in 1977. This is a vintage gelatin silver print, selenium toned, made by hand by master photographer Jack Mitchel...
Category

1970s Pop Art Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Warhol Superstar & Model Jane Forth 'After Dark' Cover, Signed Exhibition Print
By Jack Mitchell
Located in Senoia, GA
Warhol Superstar 'Trash' star, and model Jane Forth, 'After Dark' nude cover shot for the April 1970 issue, photographed in 1970. This is a vintage gelatin silver print, selenium ton...
Category

1970s Pop Art Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Kelp, Point Lobos, 1940 (China Cove, Point Lobos, 1940)
By Edward Weston
Located in Carmel-by-the-Sea, CA
Titled with artist's reference number and signed in pencil by Cole Weston with Edward Weston's facsimile signature on back of mount. Printed by Cole Weston from the original negative...
Category

1940s Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

The Elucidation: Figurative Monochrome Duratran Print on LED Illuminated Panel
By Nick Simpson
Located in Hudson, NY
Duratran print on LED illuminated panel 17 x 15 x 2 inches overall Image size: 10 x 8 inches This antique style figurative photograph was created by London based photographer, Nick ...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Paper, C Print

The Perambulator: Surreal, Vintage Style Sepia "Steampunk" Man in Ornate Frame
By Nick Simpson
Located in Hudson, NY
C-type archival print, edition 1 of 3 40 x 30 inches unframed 54 x 43 inches in ornate wood frame with engraved gold detail This antique style figurative photograph was created by L...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Paper, C Print

Juniper at Lake Tenaya, 1937
By Edward Weston
Located in Carmel-by-the-Sea, CA
Titled with artist's reference number on back of mount. Stamped, 'Edward Weston printed by' and signed by Cole Weston on back of mount. Inscribed by Cole Weston.
Category

20th Century Black and White Photography

Materials

Silver Gelatin

Blunder of the 13th Light: Vintage Style Sepia "Steampunk" Man in Ornate Frame
By Nick Simpson
Located in Hudson, NY
C-type archival print, edition of 7 12 x 16 inches unframed Pictured here: 26 x 29.5 inches in ornate wood frame with engraved detail Also available: 20 x 24 inch prints for $1800 u...
Category

2010s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

C Print, Archival Paper

The Perambulator: Whimsical Renaissance Inspired Color Archival Print
By Nick Simpson
Located in Hudson, NY
C-type archival print, edition of 25 20 x 16 inches unframed 29.5 x 25 inches in ornate wood frame with engraved gold detail This Renaissance inspired photograph was created by Lon...
Category

Early 2000s Contemporary Black and White Photography

Materials

Archival Paper, C Print

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White And Black For Sale on 1stDibs

Surely you’ll find the exact white and black you’re seeking on 1stDibs — we’ve got a vast assortment for sale. You can easily find an example made in the Modern style, while we also have 3964 Modern versions to choose from as well. Finding the perfect white and black may mean sifting through those created during different time periods — you can find an early version that dates to the 18th Century and a newer variation that were made as recently as the 21st Century. On 1stDibs, the right white and black is waiting for you and the choices span a range of colors that includes black, gray, beige and silver. A white and black from Mark Shaw, Jack Mitchell, David Yarrow, Michael Kenna and Terry O'Neill — each of whom created distinctive versions of this kind of work — is worth considering. Artworks like these of any era or style can make for thoughtful decor in any space, but a selection from our variety of those made in pigment print, silver gelatin print and archival pigment print can add an especially memorable touch. A large white and black can be an attractive addition to some spaces, while smaller examples are available — approximately spanning 1 high and 0.1 wide — and may be better suited to a more modest living area.

How Much is a White And Black?

The average selling price for a white and black we offer is $1,726, while they’re typically $2 on the low end and $491,293 for the highest priced.

Read More

David Yarrow Tells Us the Tales behind His Wild, Wild Photography

David Yarrow Tells Us the Tales behind His Wild, Wild Photography

To capture many of the cinematic images in his new show, the famed photographer traveled to the still-rugged parts of Alaska and the Rocky Mountains, shooting supermodels and carnivores alike.

Kali Is an Art World Sensation, 40 Years after She Hid Her Work Away

Kali Is an Art World Sensation, 40 Years after She Hid Her Work Away

A newly discovered trove of her kaleidoscopic works reveals that the enigmatic artist captured the zeitgeist of 1960s Southern California.

Lori Grinker’s Artful Photographs of a Young Mike Tyson Are a Knockout!

Lori Grinker’s Artful Photographs of a Young Mike Tyson Are a Knockout!

The New York photographer tells us how an encounter with the then-13-year-old boxer led to a decade-long project that saw them both go pro.

John Dolan’s Photographs Capture the Art and Soul of a Wedding Day

John Dolan’s Photographs Capture the Art and Soul of a Wedding Day

In a new book compiling 30 years' worth of images, the photographer reveals that it's the in-between moments that make a wedding special.

Sebastião Salgado Takes Us on a Close-Up Journey to Amazônia

Sebastião Salgado Takes Us on a Close-Up Journey to Amazônia

The famed Brazilian photographer tells us about the seven years he spent immersed in the Amazon rain forest.

Jonathan Becker Reflects on His Decades of Photographing A-Listers for ‘Vanity Fair’

Jonathan Becker Reflects on His Decades of Photographing A-Listers for ‘Vanity Fair’

After 30-plus years with the storied magazine, the photographer shares the tales behind some of his most famous (and often surreal) pictures.

Photographer to Know:  Jack Mitchell

Photographer to Know: Jack Mitchell

His legendary portraits captured the pride and spirit of 20th-century creativity.

When Art Galleries Join Together, Everybody Wins

When Art Galleries Join Together, Everybody Wins

Art associations are known for their glitzy fairs, but these organizations do a ton of work behind the scenes to help gallerists and collectors. Here, the heads of five major art associations give us the rundown of what they do.