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Dimensions: W 23 in. L 5 ft. 11 in.
Dealer Location: Wichita, KS
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
Pair of Spanish Green Wooden Trumeau Mirrors
Antique 19th Century Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
Pair of green Spanish wooden trumeau mirrors with antiqued and distressed mirror.
French Trumeau Napoleon III Gold Leaf
Miroirs Antiques
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 6.3 in. L 7 ft. 2.6 in.
Dealer Location: Saint-Ouen, FR
Materials & Techniques: Gesso, Gold Leaf, Paint, Wood
French Trumeau Napoleon III Gold Leaf
Antique 1860s French Napoleon III Trumeau Mirrors
Gesso, Gold Leaf, Paint, Wood
French Trumeau Napoleon III, gold leaf and black used paint, nice shell crested with acanthus molding, mercury grey panel glass bevel, circa 1860-1870.
20th Century, French Trumeau Mirror
Fabulous Finds
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 4 in. L 4 ft. 6 in.
Dealer Location: Abilene, TX
Materials & Techniques: Wood
20th Century, French Trumeau Mirror
20th Century French Rococo Trumeau Mirrors
Wood
This is a French mirror with painted gold on wood frame. It is 54 inches tall and 28 inches wide. The center cameo depicts a woman with a small dog and angel statue. The cameo is surrou...
Trumeau Frame
Peyton Wright Gallery
Dimensions: W 22 in. L 3 ft. 1 in.
Dealer Location: Santa Fe, NM
Materials & Techniques: Silver
Trumeau Frame
Antique Early 19th Century Bolivian Spanish Colonial Trumeau Mirrors
Silver
The rich resources of the New World silver mines, especially those of the Viceroyalty of Peru, made it possible to adorn homes and churches alike with all manner of objects wrought in t...
French, 19th Century Empire Trumeau Mirror
Rombouts Antiques
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 10.6 in. L 5 ft. 5.7 in.
Dealer Location: Casteren, NL
French, 19th Century Empire Trumeau Mirror
Antique 19th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
French trumeau mirror with hand-painted portrait of a classical beauty surrounded by acanthus leafs. Originates France, dating circa 1880.
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 4 in. L 4 ft. 10 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Materials & Techniques: Canvas, Glass, Wood
Unusual 18th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirr...
Antique 18th Century and Earlier French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Canvas, Glass, Wood
Handsome 18th century French Louis XVI gilt wood gladiator trumeau mirror. Please click KIRBY ANTIQUES logo below to view additional pieces from our vast inventory.
18th Century Reverse Trumeau
Liz Spradling Antiques
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 6 in. L 3 ft.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Materials & Techniques: Canvas, Mercury Glass, Wood
18th Century Reverse Trumeau
Antique 18th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
Canvas, Mercury Glass, Wood
18th century reverse trumeau with a sepia painting on the bottom and the original mercury mirror above. The trumeau is encased in painted wood molding.
18th Century Trumeau with Carved Detail
Liz Spradling Antiques
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 8.5 in. L 5 ft. 11 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Materials & Techniques: Mercury Glass, Wood
18th Century Trumeau with Carved Detail
Antique 18th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
Mercury Glass, Wood
18th century trumeau with carved detail of traditional pair of doves from Provence. Probably given as a gift in marriage due to the symbolism of the doves and the carved hearts.
Large French Painted Trumeau Mirror
Ebury Trading Ltd
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 3.4 in. L 6 ft. 8.3 in.
Dealer Location: London, GB
Large French Painted Trumeau Mirror
Antique 1840s French Trumeau Mirrors
A large French painted and gilded trumeau mirror in walnut, with a beautifully carved central panel. Formerly part of a paneled room. The mirror panel of a later date.    
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 2.3 in. L 9 ft. 10 in.
Dealer Location: Baton Rouge, LA
French 18th Century Louis XV Pair of Boiserie Trum...
Unknown
Antique 18th Century French Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
A fine, large, stunning pair of trumeau's (not identical) - dating back to the Louis XV period in France. Typical of the period, these trumeau's have Rococo style tastefully carved acce...
French 19th Century Painted Trumeau Mirror
Fireside Antiques
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 7 in. L 6 ft. 9.3 in.
Dealer Location: Baton Rouge, LA
French 19th Century Painted Trumeau Mirror
Unknown
Antique 19th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
French painted and carved wood trumeau. The craftsmanship of this piece is outstanding. The crest above the mirror begins with twin swans holding strings of pearls in their beaks top wi...
20th Century Trumeau Mirror
Rombouts Antiques
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 11.2 in. L 5 ft. 4.6 in.
Dealer Location: Casteren, NL
20th Century Trumeau Mirror
Early 20th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
20th century trumeau mirror. Originates France, dating, circa 1920.
Painted and Gilded Trumeau
Nick Brock Antiques
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 7 in. L 6 ft. 4.3 in.
Dealer Location: Dallas, TX
Materials & Techniques: Canvas, Glass, Oil Paint, Wood
Painted and Gilded Trumeau
Antique 19th Century French Neoclassical Trumeau Mirrors
Canvas, Glass, Oil Paint, Wood
A 19th century French pier mirror or trumeau, painted (green grey) and gilded, with oil on canvas picture inset at top in oval gilded frame with bow.
Biedermeier Mahogany Mirror
Robert Morrissey Antiques and Fine Art
Dimensions: W 15 in. L 3 ft. 3 in.
Dealer Location: St. Louis, MO
Materials & Techniques: Glass, Wood
Biedermeier Mahogany Mirror
Antique 1820s German Biedermeier Trumeau Mirrors
Glass, Wood
Biedermeier mahogany mirror, the rounded crest over the frieze with geometric inlay; the mirror plate set within a border with walnut squares inlaid to the corners; the lower portion wi...
French, 19th Century Empire Trumeau Mirror
Fireside Antiques
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 10 in. L 7 ft. 8.5 in.
Dealer Location: Baton Rouge, LA
French, 19th Century Empire Trumeau Mirror
Unknown
Antique 19th Century French Empire Trumeau Mirrors
French Empire trumeau mirror made of natural old pine, gilt relief decoration features battling figures and angel over a framed stacked mercury glass mirror. Absolutely stunning and uni...
French 19th Century Painted Trumeau
Fireside Antiques
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 0.3 in. L 6 ft. 2.8 in.
Dealer Location: Baton Rouge, LA
French 19th Century Painted Trumeau
Unknown
Antique 19th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
French wonderful trumeau with partial gilt and painted decorations. The painting inside the top of the trumeau is stunning, an urn overflowing with flowers and butterflies over a smalle...
20th Century Trumeau Mirror
Rombouts Antiques
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 3.4 in. L 6 ft. 0.8 in.
Dealer Location: Casteren, NL
20th Century Trumeau Mirror
Early 20th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
20th century trumeau mirror. Originates France, dating circa 1920.
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 6 in. L 7 ft. 11 in.
Dealer Location: Hopewell, NJ
Materials & Techniques: Giltwood
Splendid Pair of Very Tall Antique Mirrored Panels...
Antique Early 19th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
Giltwood
Rare and magnificent, tall and large mirrored trumeau mirrors that are slightly curved, with ornate carved giltwood and lovely French paintings at the top.
Early 18th Century French Giltwood and Paint Decor...
Antique Early 18th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
Early 18th century French giltwood and paint decorated trumeau mirror, painted off-white overall, with gilt floriform crest and border surrounding the conforming glass.
French 19th Century Carved Dark Oak Trumeau
Fireside Antiques
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 4.3 in. L 6 ft. 10.8 in.
Dealer Location: Baton Rouge, LA
French 19th Century Carved Dark Oak Trumeau
Antique 19th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
French large trumeau made in a simple design of dark oak with relief carvings of flowers.
Dimensions: W 5 ft. L 5 ft. 4 in.
Dealer Location: Charleston, SC
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
18th Century Italian Neoclassical Trumeau Mirror
Antique Late 18th Century Italian Neoclassical Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
An Italian carved wood trumeau or over mantel mirror, circa 1780, featuring a neoclassical painting. The frame is well constructed, with peg and mortice, and features beautifully carved...
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 9 in. L 4 ft. 4 in.
Dealer Location: Atlanta, GA
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Shell
Seashell Trumeau with Mirror by Fred Reed Picture ...
Fred Reed Picture Framing Inc.
21st Century and Contemporary American American Modern Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Shell
This is a beautiful handmade work of art. All seashells surround the mirror. It may be made in any size.
Dimensions: W 12.75 in. L 2 ft. 0.5 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Antique French Louis XVI Style Diminutive Trumeau
Antique Mid-19th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Unusual 19th century French Louis XVI style trumeau.
19th Century Trumeau
Watkins Culver Antiques
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 6 in. L 5 ft. 11 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
19th Century Trumeau
Antique 1890s French Trumeau Mirrors
19th century painted trumeau with carved flowers and leaves. Great scale and patina with scraped finish. Two available at $6400 each. Measuring the depth of the crown is 5.75.
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 8.7 in. L 6 ft.
Dealer Location: Saint-Ouen, FR
Materials & Techniques: Bog Wood, Stucco
Important French Louis XV Style Blue and Gold Trum...
Early 20th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Bog Wood, Stucco
Important French Louis XV style blue and gold trumeau from the beginning of the 20th century.  
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 10 in. L 4 ft. 10 in.
Dealer Location: Rochester, NY
Materials & Techniques: Giltwood, Wood
Carved and Gilded Louis XVI Style Mirror, Late 19...
Antique Late 19th Century Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Giltwood, Wood
Carved, gilt and painted Louis XVI style mirror. Circa late 19th century
Antique French, Louis XVI Gold Leaf Trumeau
Jean-Marc Fray French Antiques
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 10 in. L 6 ft. 8.3 in.
Dealer Location: Austin, TX
Materials & Techniques: Oak, Gold Leaf, Mirror
Antique French, Louis XVI Gold Leaf Trumeau
Antique Late 19th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Oak, Gold Leaf, Mirror
Resplendent French, Louis XVI style trumeau with magnificent, hand-carved, gold leafed décor surrounding the original mercury glass mirror. The central fronton features a lyre, music s...
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 5 in. L 4 ft. 11 in.
Dealer Location: Miami, FL
Materials & Techniques: Giltwood, Glass, Oil Paint
19th Century Louis XV Carved Giltwood Trumeau Mirr...
Unknown
Antique Late 19th Century French Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
Giltwood, Glass, Oil Paint
Louis XV carved giltwood trumeau mirror.
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 4 in. L 5 ft.
Dealer Location: Brea, CA
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
Antique Louis XVI French Painted Mirror
20th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
Beautiful antique mirror painted in our French Cobblestone grey finish, with distressing, and a hand glazed finish. Original bevel mirror shows subtle signs of age throughout. Large urn...
Italian Louis XV Style Trumeau Mirror
Philadelphia Estate Antiques Gallery
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 8 in. L 4 ft. 10 in.
Dealer Location: Philadelphia, PA
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
Italian Louis XV Style Trumeau Mirror
Vintage 1950s Italian Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
Louis XV style carved panel trumeau mirror. Made in Italy, marked on back.
French Trumeau Mirror
Maison Maison
Dimensions: W 5 ft. L 5 ft. 9 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
French Trumeau Mirror
Antique 19th Century French Trumeau Mirrors
19th century trumeau mirror with gilt frame from France.
Louis XV Style Painted and Gilt Mirror
Crown and Colony
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 1 in. L 5 ft. 4 in.
Dealer Location: Fairhope, AL
Louis XV Style Painted and Gilt Mirror
Antique 19th Century Trumeau Mirrors
Louis XV style painted and gilt mirror with upper and lower mirror plates framed by gilt decorative molding, 19th century.
Regency Giltwood Pier Mirror
Eclectiques
Dimensions: W 23 in. L 3 ft. 4.5 in.
Dealer Location: Water Mill, NY
Regency Giltwood Pier Mirror
Antique 19th Century English Trumeau Mirrors
Regency giltwood pier mirror with églomisé eagle decoration.
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 2.5 in. L 5 ft. 0.8 in.
Dealer Location: Pembroke, MA
Materials & Techniques: Wood
Louis XVI Period Painted and Parcel Gilt Trumeau M...
Antique 18th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Wood
A large scale French Louis XVI period trumeau mirror, with neoclassical detailing, including a large urn with swags and acanthus boughs, bows and smaller urns decorating the sides. The ...
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 1 in. L 5 ft.
Dealer Location: Brea, CA
Materials & Techniques: Gesso, Mirror, Wood
20th Century, Louis XVI Style Trumeau Mirror
20th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Gesso, Mirror, Wood
Lovely trumeau mirror has been painted in a grey antique finish, to give the look of a time worn patina. Subtle creamy white and dark aged glaze soften the edges of the carvings so they...
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 5 in. L 3 ft. 11 in.
Dealer Location: Chicago, IL
Materials & Techniques: Gesso, Gold Leaf, Wood
Pair Italian Empire Ivory and Parcel Gilt Trumeaux...
Vintage 1950s Italian Trumeau Mirrors
Gesso, Gold Leaf, Wood
Beautifully finished pair of Italian Empire trumeaux mirrors. Wood frames are ivory lacquered, glazed and finished with gilt mirror borders and crown. Carved wood and gesso relief is a ...
18th Century Trumeau
Liz Spradling Antiques
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 6 in. L 4 ft. 7 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Materials & Techniques: Wood
18th Century Trumeau
Antique 18th Century French Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
Wood
Beautifully carved Trumeau with intricate detail. Original paint and mirror.
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 1 in. L 4 ft. 7.3 in.
Dealer Location: Philadelphia, PA
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
Palladio Italian Louis XVI Style Trumeau Mirror
Palladio
Vintage 1950s Italian Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
Palladio Italian Louis XVI style trumeau mirror. Marked made in Italy and Palladio on back.
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 11.3 in. L 5 ft. 8.5 in.
Dealer Location: Fairhope, AL
Early 19th Century Country French Painted Trumeau
Antique Early 19th Century Trumeau Mirrors
This stunning 19th century country French painted trumeau features a patinated finish that is perfect for any casual or formal decor! Basket wheat decoration are represented in the full...
French, 18th Century Trumeau Mirror
R. Louis Bofferding Decorative and Fine Art
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 2 in. L 7 ft. 1.5 in.
Dealer Location: New York, NY
Materials & Techniques: Oak, Mirror, Wire
French, 18th Century Trumeau Mirror
Unknown
Antique 18th Century and Earlier French Trumeau Mirrors
Oak, Mirror, Wire
A Louis XVI trumeau mirror with a carved panel representing an allegory of music. It depicts a violin stringed with metal wires, a tambourine, and other musical instruments suspended fr...
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 3 in. L 5 ft. 5.5 in.
Dealer Location: Pembroke, MA
Materials & Techniques: Glass, Wood
Impressive Renaissance Blue Painted and Parcel Gil...
Antique Mid-19th Century French Renaissance Trumeau Mirrors
Glass, Wood
A large and unusual French blue-painted and gilded wood mirror, with finely-decorated giltwood detailing, detached giltwood columns, and egg and dart trim.
Louis XVI Period Painted Trumeau
Cal-a-vie
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 7 in. L 6 ft. 5 in.
Dealer Location: Vista, CA
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
Louis XVI Period Painted Trumeau
Antique Late 18th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
Louis XVI period painted Trumeau with a foliage and ribbon carving at the top, an inset barley twist and beaded border design and the bottom presents a carved foliage and flower motif f...
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 8.8 in. L 5 ft. 4.3 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Materials & Techniques: Mercury Glass, Wood
Pair of Large 18th Century Antique Fragment Mirror...
21st Century and Contemporary French Directoire Trumeau Mirrors
Mercury Glass, Wood
Pair of 18th century antique fragment mirrors made in the style of trumeaus with two sheets of mercury mirror glass in each one. These mirrors were made recently but with antique fragme...
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 6 in. L 5 ft. 7 in.
Dealer Location: Brentwood, TN
19th Century French Painted Trumeau Mirror
Antique 1820s French Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
An early 19th century painted french trumeau mirror. Oil painting above the mirror. Wonderful gold leaf carvings and green color. Very high quality trumeau mirror, circa 1820-1830. ...
19th Century  Trumeau Mirror
Liz Spradling Antiques
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 9 in. L 4 ft. 6.5 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Materials & Techniques: Wood
19th Century Trumeau Mirror
21st Century and Contemporary French Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
Wood
19th century fragments made into a trumeau mirror with antique mercury mirror. This mirror has been manufactured recently to look old.
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 1 in. L 4 ft. 9 in.
Dealer Location: Brea, CA
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Paint, Wood
18th Century Carved Trumeau Mirror with Roses
Antique 18th Century French Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Paint, Wood
Gorgeous French trumeau with large carved roses and vines in a faded patina gilt finish. The wood frame has the original paint finish in a soft sage with creamy tones showing through. T...
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 3 in. L 5 ft. 5.4 in.
Dealer Location: Biarritz, FR
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
18th Century French, Provence Trumeau Mirror
Unknown
Antique Mid-18th Century French Louis XV Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
Beautiful carved French painted trumeau mirror (Louis XV) with a nicely painted canvas (lovers and animal in garden) over an original mercury plate mirror in a blue/grey. The painting ...
19th Century Empire Trumeau
Tesla
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 6.7 in. L 4 ft. 8.7 in.
Dealer Location: Madrid, ES
Materials & Techniques: Giltwood
19th Century Empire Trumeau
Antique 19th Century French Empire Trumeau Mirrors
Giltwood
Empire period Trumeau lacquered and gilded wood.
Italian Neoclassical Carved Trumeau Mirror
Ramon Portuondo Wakonigg
Dimensions: W 4 ft. 2.4 in. L 4 ft. 4 in.
Dealer Location: Madrid, ES
Materials & Techniques: Wood, Mirror
Italian Neoclassical Carved Trumeau Mirror
Antique 19th Century Italian Neoclassical Trumeau Mirrors
Wood, Mirror
Italian neoclassical carved trumeau mirror. Cornice carved with maple leaves repeated line framing the mirror and the bottom, Tuscany, Italy.
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 2.3 in. L 3 ft. 6 in.
Dealer Location: Nashville, TN
Pair French or Italian Trumeau Mirrors, Capriccio ...
Early 20th Century Italian Neoclassical Trumeau Mirrors
Probably Italian trumeaux given the capricci insets. In very good condition. One small patch to upper sky on one (visible from the back side). Arched frames and mirrors. Approximate...
Dimensions: W 21 in. L 7 ft. 10 in.
Dealer Location: Dallas, TX
Materials & Techniques: Wood
19th Century French Neoclassical Painted Console/T...
Antique 1880s French Neoclassical Trumeau Mirrors
Wood
Featuring its original painted finish that has achieved a lovely patina over the decades, this superb 19th century neoclassical console and trumeau combination was found in a Parisienne...
French Trumeau Mirror
Montage
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 8 in. L 4 ft. 2 in.
Dealer Location: Stamford, CT
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
French Trumeau Mirror
Antique 19th Century French Hollywood Regency Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
Beautiful hand-carved detail. Freshly lacquered in white linen.
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 3 in. L 5 ft. 5.5 in.
Dealer Location: New York, NY
Materials & Techniques: Canvas, Glass, Wood
Pair of Louis XV Style Fete-Galante Giltwood Trume...
Antique 1880s French Rococo Trumeau Mirrors
Canvas, Glass, Wood
A pair of Louis XV style giltwood trumeau mirrors, the hand-carved frame bordering a divided rectangular mirror plate, the arched cornice centering a cameo relief surmounting an inset o...
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 6.5 in. L 4 ft. 5 in.
Dealer Location: West Palm Beach, FL
Materials & Techniques: Giltwood, Mirror, Plaster, Silver Leaf
American Art Deco Trumeau Mirror in Gold and Silve...
Mid-20th Century American Art Deco Trumeau Mirrors
Giltwood, Mirror, Plaster, Silver Leaf
This amazing and rare American Art Deco period trumeau mirror would be quite at home in the Waldorf Astoria or Rockefeller Center in New York City. The piece is simple and elegant wi...
Dimensions: W 3 ft. L 6 ft. 3 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Rococo French Giltwood Trumeau Mirror
Antique 19th Century French Rococo Trumeau Mirrors
This gorgeous Rococo trumeau mirror was handmade in France during the 19th century. The entire mirrored frame is hand-carved with intricate floral motifs, overlays and gilding. You can ...
Dimensions: W 2 ft. 10 in. L 5 ft. 9 in.
Dealer Location: Highwood, IL
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Wood
Late 18th Century Louis XVI Carved Wood Mirror wit...
Unknown
Antique Late 18th Century French Louis XVI Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Wood
This mirror is exquisite and makes a statement with its fine carving and the wonderful gilt urn. Everything is original and comes from Normandy.
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 3.3 in. L 5 ft. 11 in.
Dealer Location: Houston, TX
Materials & Techniques: Mirror, Paper, Wood
Pair of Large 18th Century Architectural Paneled F...
Antique 17th Century Italian Trumeau Mirrors
Mirror, Paper, Wood
Pair of 18th century Italian paneled architectural frames as trumeau style mirrors with remnants of original hand-painted textured wall paper adorning the upper panels.
Italian Parcel Gilt and Painted Mirror
Navona Antiques
Dimensions: W 3 ft. 11.5 in. L 6 ft. 0.5 in.
Dealer Location: Los Angeles, CA
Materials & Techniques: Giltwood
Italian Parcel Gilt and Painted Mirror
Antique 19th Century European Trumeau Mirrors
Giltwood
Arched plate centered by a medallion on a pale blue ground and flanked by a pair of columns.